Fast Or Slow Walking? Which Is Better For Your Body And Your Bones

In our instant-access world, some people long for a return to a slower pace. That’s understandable.

But there is one aspect of life in which faster is better: walking. Science has confirmed fast walking could add years to your life as well as life to your years — and even help reduce the risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, and dementia.

Beyond Bone Health: Walking for Your Heart and Mind

The benefits of fast walking are especially dramatic for older walkers. In a new study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, researchers from five universities found walkers 60 and older who strode at an average pace reduced their cardiovascular risk by 46 percent; fast walkers reduced their risk by 53 percent.1

“Assuming our results reflect cause and effect, these analyses suggest that increasing walking pace may be a straightforward way for people to improve heart health and risk for premature mortality,” said Professor Emmanuel Stamatakis, the study’s lead author.

“Especially in situations when walking more isn’t possible due to time pressures or a less walking-friendly environment, walking faster may be a good option to get the heart rate up — one that most people can easily incorporate into their lives.”

The British study confirms what the National Walkers’ Health Study reported in 2013: a brisk walk beats jogging for health benefits while protecting older bones and joints from unnecessary stress. The National Walkers’ study was the first of its kind to demonstrate the health benefits of stepping lively over time.2

Drawing from a large database maintained at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, scientists divided participants into four equal categories, based on pace. The fleet of foot enjoyed the greatest longevity. Strollers not only had a higher rate of death — they were more vulnerable to heart disease and dementia as causes of mortality.

If you’re a naturally slow walker, there’s a silver lining: an incremental increase in pace also reduces the risk of premature death. In the Berkeley study, walkers who were just a minute or so faster than the slowest group still experienced a significant uptick in longevity.

Synopsis

Fast walking can help improve heart health and reduce the risk of dementia and early death — and it’s an easy exercise routine to incorporate into your daily life.

How Walking Increases Bone Mineral Density

Another important benefit of fast walking is bone remodeling. Contrary to popular belief, bone is not solid, but is continually being rebuilt, or remodeled, at various sites throughout your skeleton.

In the first year of life, almost 100 percent of bone is remodeled as a baby grows. In adults, remodeling takes place at the rate of about ten percent per year.

However, lack of exercise, especially after menopause, can lead to bone loss. Weakened bones are more prone to breaking, often resulting in the dreaded hip fracture.

Walking can help prevent or forestall this crippling condition. The National Institutes of Health analyzed the results of ten trials and found walking created “significant and positive effects” on bone mineral density of the femur (hip bone) in an older adult population, with walking programs that last longer than six months.4

In other words: walk as if your life depends on it because it does.

Synopsis

Because bone building slows down after menopause, fast walking can help maintain bone mineral density, which in turn helps prevent hip fractures in older adults.

Do You Really Need 10,000 Steps?

If fast walking is one of the keys to healthy aging and building better bones, does that mean more is better? Step counters and advertising would have us believe 10,000 steps is some magical mobility goal. But this figure is more myth than magic.

10,000 steps equal somewhere between four and five miles, depending on your stride. That’s a lot of walking in a day, even for a younger person, and may be too ambitious for some seniors.

Basically, how you walk is as important as the amount of walking you do. Leisurely climbing the stairs, ambling along on the treadmill, or wandering casually down the block will all have a negligible effect on your health and bones; the goal is focused, fast walking that raises your heart rate and has you breaking a sweat.

Synopsis

The number of steps you take isn’t nearly as important as starting and maintaining a focused fitness program that includes regular fast walking to raise your heart rate.

Other Benefits of Fast Walking

Aside from postponing death, building healthy bones, and helping you to better overall health and fitness, walking saves your brain. It helps you:

  • Concentrate5
  • Remain calm
  • Sleep better
  • Activate creativity6
  • Reflect and regenerate (when you walk in nature)7

For optimal well being, walking should be placed in the context of a complete healthy lifestyle program that supports sustainable exercise.

Synopsis

Walking is an all-around body benefit, boosting mood and mental activity as well as bone health.

9 Tips for Smart, Safe, Swift Walking

While walking is second nature, fast walking for health requires a different degree of attention. Follow these nine tips for safe, effective speed walking:

  • Start with a stretch. Be sure to warm up with a gentle walk and, some light stretches (to the degree you’re able) before embarking on your fast walk.
  • Pay attention to posture. Your grandmother may have reminded you to stand up straight, and it’s the best advice for fast walking, too. Head up, shoulders back, and walk tall with your eyes forward.
  • Relax your shoulders. Hunching causes your body unnecessary strain. Relax — walking is meant to be a fun, natural workout.
  • Engage your arms. Swinging your arms from side to side, keeping them slightly bent, makes walking a whole body exercise. The motion will also help increase your speed, like a tailwind.
  • Breathe naturally. Some people unconsciously hold their breath when they exercise. The deeper you breathe, the more oxygen circulates through your body, and the more invigorated you’ll feel.
  • Make it a habit. Schedule your walk just as you would any other appointment. Choose a time of day that suits your natural rhythm. Morning people may prefer to start their day with exercise; a night owl might groan and roll over in bed. Pick a set time, and stick with it.
  • Build up your walking time gradually. Remember, it’s not the number of steps, but consistency and pace that will reap the most benefit. If you can fast-walk for 20 to 30 minutes a day, at least three times a week, that’s a good goal.
  • Wear walking shoes that fit. You don’t want blisters or pain to derail your efforts. Visit an athletic shoe store and ask a knowledgeable salesperson to help you select the right shoes for your age, gait, and comfort level.
  • Congratulate yourself. You’ve created a good habit to keep you healthy and build your bones that will serve you well for the rest of your life.

Synopsis

Warm up, relax, breathe, wear walking shoes that fit, and enjoy your fast walking routine — it’s one of the best new habits you can start.

Walking Works At Any Age

Exercise is a sound investment, even if you’re well into your senior years. Beginning a fast walking routine can help you build your bones, and stay healthy and mobile longer. Frail, formerly sedentary elders have improved their bone health and fitness significantly via an exercise program that included daily walks, balance and strength training.8

You’re never too old to walk. Picking up the pace is a natural way to improve your bone health and have a long, healthy life.

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References:

1 Emmanuel Stamatakis, Paul Kelly, Tessa Strain, Elaine M Murtagh, Ding Ding, Marie H Murphy. “Self-rated walking pace and all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality: individual participant pooled analysis of 50 225 walkers from 11 population British cohorts.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2018; 52 (12): 761 DOI. Web: https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/52/12/761

2 Paul T. Williams, Paul D. Thompson. “The Relationship of Walking Intensity to Total and Cause-Specific Mortality..Results from the National Walkers’ Health Study.” Published: November 19, 2013. PLOS One. Web: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0081098

3 F.H. Hooven et al.. “The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) rationale and study design.” 2009 Jul; 20(7): 1107–1116. Web: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690851/

4 Ma D, Wu L, He Z. “Effects of walking on the preservation of bone mineral density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” 2013 Nov;20(11):1216-26. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000100.
Web: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24149921

5Aspinall P, Mavros P, Coyne R, Roe J. “The urban brain: analysing outdoor physical activity with mobile EEG.” Br J Sports Med. 2015 Feb;49(4):272-6. Web: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23467965

6Dr. Paul Snowden. “Creative Walking” South West Blog. National Trust. Web: http://www.ntsouthwest.co.uk/tag/dr-paul-sowden/

7“Enjoying the great outdoors – nature’s own stress buster.” Economic and Social Research Council. FRI, JUL 26, 2013. Web: http://news.cision.com/the-economic-and-social-research-council/r/enjoying-the-great-outdoors—nature-s-own-stress-buster,c9522265

8 Marco Pahor, MD; Jack M. Guralnik, MD, PHD; Walter T. Ambrosius, PhD; et al. “Effect of Structured Physical Activity on Prevention of Major Mobility Disability in Older Adults.” Journal of the American Medical Association. The LIFE Study Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2014;311(23):2387-2396. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5616Web: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1875328

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24 comments. Leave Yours Now →
  1. bea September 27, 2018, 12:54 am

    i walk 2 miles 4 times a week it takes me 35 minutes i also ride a bike for 30 min. 4times a week i am 83 years old do you think i am doing to much i also do afitness class 2 times a week i would to hear from you thank you vivian bea

  2. Charles De Souza September 21, 2018, 11:30 pm

    Returning to receive your emails after I lost you email when my computer crashed and I lost everything.
    Look forward to receiving you newletters.

  3. Nancy September 20, 2018, 1:05 pm

    What is considered “fast” and “slow” walking? Can you give some mph numbers for examples?

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 2:54 pm

      Please see my answer to Nada, Nancy 🙂

  4. Peggy Elwood September 20, 2018, 12:48 pm

    I get so frustrated..I have had RA for 20 years and feet and hands have suffered the most…I can barely find shoes comfortable enough to go run errands…slippers aren’t even that comfortable….right foot is what they call a Rheumatoid Foot..3 hammertoes, bunion, and all toes going sideways. Only thing that helps is cortizone shots but can only have one in each foot 2x a year. have been to 4 foot doctors…one wanted to break every toe and put pins and screws in every joint. No. The 0ther 3 podiatrists just say you have really bad feet….any suggestions?
    Thanks

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 3:14 pm

      So sorry that you’re having foot issues, Peggy! Your best bet would be to find a good naturopathic doctor that can treat your problem with natural methods. It may be hard to find, but it’s sure worth your while to look for one in your area. We wish you good health and that your problem will be resolved in the near future.

  5. Nada Raffaelli September 20, 2018, 11:55 am

    How fast are you saying is fast walking? 3/mph or 3.5/mph or 4/mph?
    or faster?

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 1:57 pm

      Hi Nada,

      As I answered Mary, according to the CDC, a brisk walking pace is 3.0 miles per hour (approximately 20 minutes per mile or about 12 minutes per kilometer). A fast pace is less than 15 minutes per mile , which is a little over 6 kilometers per hour. So you can compare these figures to normal walking pace, the average is more than 20 minutes per mile (slower than 3.0 mph).

  6. Bobbie Gullo September 20, 2018, 9:31 am

    A friend told me that a person has to weigh at least 150 pounds for walking to be effective as a weight bearing exercise. Is this true for a short, small woman with small bones who weighs under 110?

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 11:27 am

      Hi Bobbie,

      It’s a commonly held belief that increased body weight means denser bones; but when researchers looked into this issue, they discovered that this is not as clear-cut an issue as many people think. You can read about the study and what scientists found in this article:

      https://saveourbones.com/does-weight-affect-osteoporosis/

    • Luc September 20, 2018, 11:01 am

      I am a man 6 feet tall but only 132 pounds. So I walk with weights in each hand, in fact 15 pounds each and it does make a difference in the energy spent. It feels I have worked my body much more than without these weight.

      • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 11:48 am

        You’re right, Luc – adding weights the way you describe can add a healthy challenge to your bones.

  7. Carolyn McFarland September 20, 2018, 9:27 am

    Can I just say a simple thankyouthankyouthankyou!

    I follow your posts regularly and find them interesting, informative, and very motivating!

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 10:39 am

      You’re very welcome, Carolyn!

  8. Marti Cuevas September 20, 2018, 8:11 am

    I was a lifelong runner who did an average of 7 miles daily, in the city and mostly on pavement. The constant abuse took its toll. In June of this year, at 69, I had a hip replacement. I was walking without assistance within a few days of surgery, and started walking outside, within a week doing the mile loop around my house. From there I graduated to sessions of 2.2 miles with some steep hills for naturally occurring interval training, while pushing my grandson. Now I do the course two or three times daily. I am religious about doing daily PT – but I believe the walking (which is now very fast!) has gotten me my life back. Fortunately I work from home, so I have been able to really concentrate on PT and walking. But It has been miraculous to say the least!

  9. Linda September 20, 2018, 7:49 am

    Yes, please specify what “fast walking” means

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 10:38 am

      Linda, please see my answer to Mary 🙂

  10. Lynn Hopkins September 20, 2018, 6:40 am

    Hi Vivian, I love walking but like so many of my contemporaries (I’m 69), I have had a knee replacement 10 months ago and if I walk fast, my whole leg starts to ache after about 45 minutes. Also, I live in a busy town and it’s hard to find space to walk fast without having to dodge people, mobility scooters, pushchairs etc.
    Maybe you could send out some exercises for us older folk who are not so mobile?
    Thanks for your constant encouragement. Keep up the good work.

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 10:37 am

      Of course we understand that there are Savers with limited mobility, and for that reason we offer a variety of seated exercises. The link below gives you many exercises that you can do to strengthen your muscles while sitting on a chair:

      https://saveourbones.com/?s=seated

      Stay fit!

  11. Mary September 20, 2018, 6:08 am

    How fast is fast walking? A 15-minute mile? 20-minute?

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA September 20, 2018, 10:33 am

      According to the CDC, a brisk walking pace is 3.0 miles per hour (approximately 20 minutes per mile or about 12 minutes per kilometer). A fast pace is less than 15 minutes per mile , which is a little over 6 kilometers per hour. So you can compare these figures to normal walking pace, the average is more than 20 minutes per mile (slower than 3.0 mph).

      • Mary September 22, 2018, 7:37 am

        Thank you! I can set my Runkeeper to keep me on pace for a 15-minute (or less) mile walk.

      • Nada Raffaelli September 20, 2018, 12:01 pm

        Thanks. I see you answered my question. I start at 3.0 and finish with 4.0 after 35 minutes.
        I have my 2 year DEXA scan next week. Hoping for improvement. I’ve been taking Algae-Cal for 3 + years. Lift 3000 lbs every other day. I will be very disappointed if no improvement.
        Vegetable and fruits are my mainstay + nuts.
        Love your cookbook-except the reliance on coconut oil which is a saturated fat.

  12. Dejean September 20, 2018, 5:23 am

    Adding a synopsis at the end of every chapter is a very good innovation for readers who are in a hurry or who are not native speakers of English.

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