Save Our Bones Bulletin: Greenery Benefits Bone; Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase Risk Of Stomach Cancer; Biotech Drug In The Works To Delay Or Prevent Menopause - Save Our Bones

This month's new studies offer useful information on how to prevent osteoporosis and cancer, and possibly even delay or avoid menopause.

We will cover all three topics, which involve the impact of green leafy vegetation, the risks of proton pump inhibitors, and a biotech company’s efforts to fund new hormone therapies. We'll explain the details so that you're equipped to make the best decisions for your bones and your overall health.

Leafy Green Areas Linked To Lower Osteoporosis Rates

A new study from the UK published in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases found that people who live in areas with more greenery are less likely to develop osteoporosis.

The study included 391,298 participants with an average age of 56, just over half of whom were women. The study accessed the amount of greenery in the participants' residential areas using a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is based on satellite imagery.

Each participant was monitored over an average period of 12 years until a diagnosis of osteoporosis, death, or the study’s conclusion on March 31st, 2021. During that time, new cases of osteoporosis arose in 9,307 participants.

The researchers suggested the association between less greenery and a higher risk of osteoporosis is due to increased air pollutants in areas with less vegetation. The participants' annual average exposures to the pollutants nitrogen oxide (NO2) and particulate matter PM2.5 were estimated based on data from a study on the long-term effects on human health of exposure to air pollution in Europe.

Relevant Excerpt

“The authors estimated the NDVI in steps of about 300 meters of available residential greenness at a range of 300 to 1500 meters. With each such increase of the NDVI they found an increase in bone mineral density and 5% lower risk of developing osteoporosis.
The key moderating factors found in the association between green space and reduction of the risk to develop osteoporosis were lower levels of NO2 and PM2.5
Several studies have shown that exposure to air pollution can produce oxidative stress, inflammation, and disrupt hormones, both of which increase the risk of osteoporosis, note the researchers.”1

This study points to the ability of residential greenery to improve air quality and to the ability of poor air quality to harm bone health. Reducing exposure to air pollution can help protect your body from oxidative stress and inflammation, which in turn protects your bones.


Researchers in the UK found that study participants who lived in residential areas with more vegetation were less likely to be diagnosed with osteoporosis. They attribute this to lower levels of air pollutants in those high-vegetation areas.

Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase Risk Of Stomach Cancer

A comprehensive review in the Journal of Clinical Medicine found that study participants who used proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) had an increased risk of stomach cancer.

PPIs reduce the acidity of stomach fluid by inhibiting proteins that release protons to create stomach acid. This class of drug is commonly prescribed to treat acid reflux, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), as well as ulcers.

However, like all drugs, it comes with risks. Over-the-counter PPIs include omeprazole (Prilosec), esomeprazole (Nexium), and lansoprazole (Prevacid). Prescription PPIs include rabeprazole (Aciphex), pantoprazole (Protonix), and dexlansoprazole (Dexilant)

Relevant Excerpt

“The authors reviewed several papers investigating the link between PPI use and cancer risk and found a link between PPI use and stomach cancer and polyps. No other cancer links were identified.

One of the studies they cited evaluated data from about 2,400 records and found that long-term use for one year and three years was associated with 1.5- and 2.4-fold increases in the risk of stomach cancer, respectively.

Other research followed 3,271 patients who were given PPIs after a Helicobacter pylori infection and found that long-term PPI use was associated with a twofold increase in the risk of stomach cancer.”2

The researchers suggested that the increased cancer risk could be linked to changes in the gut microbiome caused by PPIs. These changes can include reductions in beneficial gut bacteria and increases in harmful bacteria that may increase inflammation and produce carcinogens.


A study on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) found an association between the commonly prescribed class of drugs and increases in the risk of stomach cancer. The drug's impact on stomach acidity may alter gut bacteria leading to increased inflammation and carcinogens.

New Hormone Treatment Aims To Delay Menopause, Perhaps Indefinitely

A United States biotechnology company called Oviva Therapeutics focusing on combating aging in women aims to create a novel drug that would delay or possibly prevent the onset of menopause.

The company's leaders believe that menopause is an under-explored driver of aging. The drug they intend to develop would target a hormone called Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH).

Relevant Excerpt

“AMH has historically been used as a marker for how many eggs a woman has available in her ovaries. The hormone typically prevents egg cells from being released and fluctuates naturally during ovulation. With a treatment based on AMH in preclinical development, Oviva aims to reduce the number of egg cells that are lost during each menstrual cycle, and maintain the ovarian reserve for longer.

The AMH approach contrasts with current hormone therapies for menopause, as it could delay the process rather than just tackling the symptoms. Oviva’s AMH therapies also differ from birth control pills because they are designed to act earlier in the chain of biological events leading to the release of an egg cell from the ovaries. With birth control pills, for example, Robinton explained that “you’re not getting the ovulation event, so you’re not getting pregnant, but you’re still depleting the ovarian reserve. There is yet to be any sort of therapeutic that acts at that early intervention point that would actually influence the ovarian reserve itself.” 3

This new hormone therapy is still theoretical, however, Oviva Therapeutics has raised the funds to develop the drug. The first trials would be with mice and pending those results there would be human trials.

All drugs have side effects, and since hormones typically play multiple roles in the body, it remains to be seen what sort of side effect such a drug would cause.


The anti-aging biotech company Oviva Therapeutics aims to develop a new hormone-based drug that would delay or prevent the onset of menopause. They have raised the required funding, and will begin development of the experimental drug, which will first be tested on mice.

What This Means To You

The risks associated with drugs seem especially unnecessary when compared to the scientifically proven benefits of simple, natural changes to your health.

The Osteoporosis Reversal Program is a compendium of changes you can make to your habits and behaviors to rebuild bone strength without the dangers posed by osteoporosis drugs. From diet, to physical activity, to lifestyle changes– the ORP can help you build bone the natural way.

The best part about a drug-free approach to improving your health is that you can start down the path to healthier bones today!





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  1. Janine

    Hi Vivian thank you for a timely article on stomach acid and cancer, As you are aware we have another drug now being flogged world-wide as a quick fix weightloss injector and as a promoter of improved cardiovascular health: Ozempic and Weigovy. Unfortunately, Ozempic and Weigovy also occasion side-effects and one fact is notable: that being it lowers stomach acid which keeps food longer in the stomach (hence not only feeling full but over time: feeling nauseated and becoming ill). With less stomach acid we cannot digest food or Kill in the first instance any unwanted microbes, bacteria, parasites and fungi as nature intended. Moreover, partially undigested food causes not only intestinal blockages but fungal growth and dysbiosis. The re-purposing of a drug as a simple answer to weight problems in those who have not been tested for thyroid issues and pre-diabetes, PCOS etc is negligence, as is people’s refusal to take ownership for their poor food and lifestyle habits. This may lead to serious health issues in the long term not only for the adults concerned but their future children and society when such reliance is placed on a drug. Weightgain requires a holistic approach and a vital look into metabolic health/disease state of the individual. In the meantime, diabetics who need these drugs are forced to wait precariously in line to obtain the drug to survive.
    : )

  2. Warren Hamrick

    My doctor would like to know the name of the study that links PPI’s to Stomach cancer. Can you please provide it to me.

  3. Ita

    Thank you, Ita .

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA

      You’re welcome!

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