Reductionism Vs. Holism: What They Mean And Which Is Better For Your Bones And Your Health? - Save Our Bones

There is a battle raging in the fields of medicine and biology. It’s been going on for more than a hundred years, and probably even longer. It’s not a disagreement over how things work or why, but over the best way to make physical changes to the biological systems that keep us healthy and happy.

Today I’m going to strap on my shiniest science armor and jump into the middle of the fight to help you understand this conflict and how it impacts your bone health.

Systems Of Ourselves

Systems Biology posits that organisms (including humans!) are a combination of many systems, each of which are combinations of yet smaller systems, and so on and so on.

Even non-biologists use the language of “systems” to describe many of our body’s functions. We have a circulatory system, a respiratory system and extra-important for us a skeletal system. That seems obvious enough, but the way we think about these systems – both their individual functioning and their relationships to each other – can have a big impact on them.

Are We More Than The Sum Of Our Parts?

There are two warring schools of thought about how to best understand these systems: Reductionism and Holism. Both camps, in a medical context, intend to create healthier humans, but their different approaches to understanding and considering the human body lead to vastly different attempts… and results.

Before we get into the details, it’s worth noting that these two groups aren’t actually unified or even very well defined. There are plenty of nuances within each philosophy that result in very different opinions and practices, and individual biologists often fall somewhere on a spectrum between the two.

Considering The Reduced Body

Reductionism asserts that we can best understand an organism by reducing it to its component parts. This position sees the human body as a massive collection of very simple systems. Reductionists apply that concept to argue that problems can and should be fixed by isolating the smallest possible system and adjusting it. The reductionist views the human body as a mechanism contained within smaller mechanisms, down to the molecular level and beyond. The Medical Establishment and Big Pharma apply the reductionist view.

Considering The Whole Body

Holism views an organism by considering the relationship of its complete systems to its whole. This position sees the human body as a collection of systems that are best understood by their impact on and relationship to each other and to the whole body. Holists argue that problems can and should be fixed by examining all of the systems that relate to the problem, and then adjusting them each with a consciousness of how each adjustment affects the whole.

Holists are often defined simply by their objection to reductionism. Some Holists observe that we cannot reduce certain biological systems because they are so complex that predicting their behavior is beyond the computational processing power available to us.

Others contend that reductionists are so focused on the minutiae of each individual biological system, that they fail to account for the health and functionality of the whole. These holists might employ a favorite idiom to describe reductionists: they can’t see the forest for the trees.

Approaching From The Inside Out? Or The Outside In?

Systems Biology, as a field of study, naturally encompasses both reductionism and holism, and certainly both are interested in biological systems. The important questions defining these two ends of the spectrum are ones of scale and inclusion. Do you zero in on the tiniest possible system and try to tinker with one variable in the base equation to get a new result? Or do you make natural adjustments to all related systems while considering and prioritizing the whole?

More Than Skeletons

By now you have probably surmised where Savers fall on the spectrum. At the Save Institute, we always apply a holistic method: considering the whole body to achieve and maintain good health, including your bones.

You probably saw a bunch of skeletons running around your neighborhood last week during Halloween. Some may even have knocked on your door! If you’re just a skeletal system, then giant pharmaceutical companies and the doctors who do their bidding probably have everything you need to keep trick-or-treating in the land of the living.

But if you have a whole body, you probably want to take care of all of it. When you do, you can grow stronger, younger bones without compromising the rest of your health.

To better understand the specific differences between reductionist and holistic approaches to bone health, let’s take a look down the dark road that extreme reductionism has lead drug companies.

Tunnel Vision

How has reductionism lead to the prevalence of potentially dangerous drugs like Fosamax, Boniva, and other biophosphonates?

Remember that reductionism posits that every problem can be solved by isolating the base equation and then adjusting the variables. The relevant base equation for building bone mass is bone remodeling, the process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts, the essential out-with-the-old and in-with-the-new system by which we keep our bones young.

The reductionist solution is to use bisphosphonates or other osteoporosis drugs, to prevent osteoclasts from doing their job: removing old worn-out bone tissue to make way for the new bone that osteoblasts build. As the old bone gets buried beneath the new (instead of being replaced) the quantity of bone increases, so the reductionists feel like they’ve solved the problem.

But Savers Know Better

Focusing on just increasing bone quantity shouldn’t be the goal. Instead, the goal is to avoid fractures while living your life at its fullest. That goal is met by increasing bone quality first and by not tampering with the remodeling process, but rather, by applying easy nutritional and lifestyle guidelines, which in turn, typically also lead to an increase in bone density.

I like the metaphor of a thick but dried-up tree branch compared to a pliable young twig. Bones that have been built up with osteoporosis prescription drugs might get thicker (at least for a while) like the brittle branch, but just like that branch, they are easier to break than a resilient twig, which can bend without breaking.

Recent studies have backed up this common sense comparison1 and you can read more about how bone heterogeneity prevents atypical femur fractures in my article, “More Scientific Proof That Bisphosphonates Destroy Bone And Cause Atypical Fractures.”

More Harm Than Good

Not only has this reductionist solution dangerously tinkered with the innermost natural workings of the human body, but it has absolutely zero regard for any of the other systems that make up your whole.

The side effects of bisphosphonates wreak havoc on your body. For those following a reductionist approach, creating a greater quantity of bone might seem like a job-well-done, because all they care about is the system they’re adjusting. But what if that adjustment destroys the systems around it? This sort of tunnel vision might be great for Big Pharma, but it’s clearly detrimental to your health.

Here’s the list of drug warnings I included in my fantasy Boniva commercial where Sally Field tells the troubling truth about this drug:

“If you are looking for a short-term osteoporosis ‘quick-fix’ and still want to take a chance with Boniva, please note that you are risking the following side effects, many of which may be irreversible: nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea, severe constipation, inflammation and ulceration of the esophagus, chest pain, heartburn, difficulty swallowing, skin rash, eye problems including vision loss and blurred vision, generalized pain of the muscles, joints, and/or bones, decreased mobility of joints, blood clotting disorders, anemia, dental problems, numbness, tight muscles in the face, seizures, irritability and unusual thoughts and behaviors, altered taste, atrial fibrillation, jaw pain, osteonecrosis of the jaw.”

It’s Not Just Bisphosphonates

As mentioned earlier, the pharmaceutical industry is built on reductionism: attempting to reduce the human body to a simple enough equation that they can just switch out a few variables to get the desired result.

Unfortunately, when this goes wrong, as it most often does, it goes very wrong, so don’t count on the FDA to protect you. There have been 35 drugs approved by the FDA that were later pulled from the market (sometimes after a shockingly long time)2 when they were finally deemed too dangerous for human use. Many drugs currently on the market are ongoing candidates for recall. So it should be no surprise that even non-biphosphonate drugs claiming to reverse osteoporosis work in a similarly short-sighted way. Prolia for example isn’t a biophosphonate, but it’s still trying shut down your normal bone replenishing system by taking osteoclasts out of the equation.

Read more about the comparable dangers of Prolia in a previous post, where I reimagine a Prolia commercial. Prolia’s side effects extend to the immune system, with disturbing results. That’s another example of the dangerous reductionist tunnel vision.

Enough Is Enough!

A Holist would never advocate for a solution that causes more problems. That’s because holism is concerned with the well-being of the entire body, and how all of its systems work together.

We’re not those Halloween skeletons. We’re living, breathing, complicated humans, and our full well-being matters.

Fortunately, when you zoom out and start considering whole systems of the body and how they work together, new solutions arise. Instead of shutting down those hard working osteoclasts that are trying to do their job, we should support every part of our skeletal system to help us grow newer, younger bones. Instead of zooming all the way in to solve the problem with one molecular quick-fix, we can create positive change.

A Holistic Response

Value your whole self. Give your bones what they need to rejuvenate by consuming a pH-balanced diet. Help your bones to grow strong in all the right places through simple and specific weight bearing exercises. Make simple changes to your lifestyle to help you live the bone-healthy life you want.

The Osteoporosis Reversal Program approaches bone health from all of these angles; a multi-prong approach that activates the systems your body already have in place to keep your bones young while valuing and caring for the whole you.

Stop Worrying About Your Bone Loss

Join thousands of Savers from around the world who have reversed or prevented their bone loss naturally and scientifically with the Osteoporosis Reversal Program.

Learn More Now →

Till next time,


1 Gladnick, Brian, et al. “Quantity vs. Quality: Long-Term Use of Bone-Building Osteoporosis.” 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) and Columbia University Medical Center.

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Comments on this article are closed.

  1. Diana Whitehouse

    Hi Vivian. Having refused all medication to date, I’ve read positive reviews on Strontium. would you give your opinion please?

  2. Aprille

    I too am was the cusp of osteoporosis at 72 years old. About 3 years ago I took the advice of my doctor and started taking Fosamax. I must admit I didn’t read the possible side effects of this because I didn’t want to risk “auto-suggestion”.
    After a few months I found I couldn’t take my supplements all at once – I had to take them one by one because they would get stuck in my throat. After more time, I could hardly swallow my own saliva.
    Meanwhile I started having pain in my sternum just breathing – very scary. I had to breathe very shallowly so as not have such pain.
    In the meantime I went to my dentist for my regular cleaning. I happened to mention to him that the bleach trays he had made for me weren’t fitting my upper jaw because my teeth had moved. He didn’t even ask – he pointed at me and said “you’re on Fosamax!!”. “You’re computer savvy, to home and research it.” Well, I did and that’s how I found you.
    I also asked a friend of mind (she’s a PA) about Fosamax. She told me something that I haven’t read ANYWHERE ELSE. The told me it has a 5-year half-life! So, even though I had already stopped taking it and the constriction in my throat had diminished, and the pain in my sternum when I breathed had also stopped, that darn Fosamax was going to continue to impact my bones. (By the way, the problem with my teeth didn’t improve. I had to have a new bleach tray made.)
    When my doctor asked me to consider taking something else, either an infusion or whatever else, I said “Absolutely Not”. Then I told him about the 5-year half life. He gave up trying to convince me.
    At this point in my life, I’m trying to follow the alkaline diet as best as I can and I’ll just take my chances. I’ll never take any of those type of meds again!

  3. ruth

    Viv I need help. My lower right jaw which took a hammering 40 odd years ago and has been without teeth for the last 12 is now very thin in that spot. I have just had all my remaining teeth removed due to gradual deteration due to workplace contact over years and a few bingles on the snowfields etc. The highly qualified dentist informs me that my dentures can not be childishly sharp as strong downward pressure will cause more bone loss
    This seems back to front but googling brings up scientifically reported evidence that backs his remark. I have eaten a totally raw fruit and vegi diet here in Asia for the last 3 years with the exception of steamed sweet potatoes which I need for carbs when I have physical work Please tell me what else I can do to increase jaw bone growth and desity.

  4. Christine

    I live in the UK and am borderline osteoporosis which is due to rapid bone loss. Is there anything I can do about this? If my bone loss was within normal range I would probably be fine with diet, exercise and maybe supplements.
    Our medical profession are not interested in nutrition and just want to give drugs in fact I was under a top London teaching hospital until a year ago but because I would not take their drugs they discharged me and told me they did not want to see me again.

    • FM

      Yes I too have been discharged from hospital after second visit, probably for the same reason you were. That saying – You are what you eat – should be taken more seriously imho. My osteporosis worsensed despite my increasing dairy intake. I now, thanks to Vivian’s site, have changed my eating habits incorporating the 80/20 alkaline, acid balance approach, cut out all processed ‘foods’ eat very little meat, eat free range eggs,cottage cheese,yoghurts with cultures but no milk,hard cheeses,butter or cream. I eat loads of fruit and veg, many of which contribute to good bone health as do mushrooms also.
      It is sad that the professionals offer no other alternative other than pushing dangerous drugs.

  5. karen

    Hello Vivian,

    How do you feel about the drug Evista? What does it do to the bone building process?


    • Suzy

      Karen, if you search for Evista in this website’s search space, you’ll find an article that details all the terrible side-effects of that particular drug. Vivian’s articles have been live-savers for me! – Suzy

  6. karen riedl

    please unsubscribe me. thanks anyway,

  7. Dee

    Has anyone heard of a new milk made from peas? It is supposed to taste like cow’s milk?

    • Jolee Vasquez

      Have used protein powder made from peas with good results as I don’t do well with whey or soy protein. I would be curious to try this. I’m wondering what the fat content would be?

  8. Dianne

    Does Effexor, an antidepressant contribute to low bone density.

  9. Betty

    I have commented before on how conflicted I feel between taking and not taking osteo pharmaceuticals. I am due for another Prolia injection for SEVERE Osteoporosis with great pressure from family and Drs. It seems that the risk is great either way. I still suffer from spinal compression fractures that occurred early 2016 and am on pain reliever drugs and yes I did take a Prolia injection even though I know how it works. Due for another THIS week!. I need a walker to go any distance. Feel like the choice is obvious and fractures possible with either.

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA

      I know it can be difficult and confusing, Betty – but the decision is yours as to how you wish to proceed. The main thing to remember is that it is your health and your body, and you and you alone (not your family or your doctor) will experience any effects from your choice of treatment, whether good or bad.

      Have you taken some time to develop your Bone Health Philosophy? This is an invaluable tool for making decisions and sticking to them. Here is a link to help you formulate your own personal philosophy:

      Best wishes moving forward, whatever you decide!

  10. Danaellen

    Does anybody else notice that they have to go to the bathroom much more when they drink distilled water? DIstilled water is vivian’s recommendation and I tried it for almost two weeks and it goes right through me. I fear that it’s not hydrating me. I use lemon and Himalayan and a pinch of pink salt in my water.

    • Babs Robertson

      Yes I do visit bathroom more by drinking bottled water as well.

      • Quebec City

        Distilled water should not be drank, it leaches out minerals from the body. It is well known in the industrial plumbing industry that distilled water corrodes the pipes much faster than ordinary water.

  11. Kimberly Heimerl

    Off topic, but I want to encourage anyone struggling with “the milk issue.” For 3 years I have been following Save Our Bones and failing to resist milk cravings for as long. I read every article against milk trying to convince myself. Cutting milk back slowly did not work.

    I started having stomach problems and spent most of the time hungry because just thinking about food nauseated me. I went to the doctor, and she said, “No milk.” (Aaa! Not you, too! Impossible!) Gradually, the “no milk” condition improved. I could drink it again, but alas! I did not.

    Why? I discovered it is NOT impossible to enjoy oatmeal without milk, and water in recipes many times works just as well as milk. I actually did not even crave it. However, recently I ate too many tomatoes at once, and did they burn my stomach! Milk always helped, so I bought a liter. (Ah-ha! Finally a good excuse to have a little!) I got home and anxiously poured a glass and…

    it did not taste as good as I remembered! In fact, I could actually taste chemicals in it. Why?

    I moved to another country and returned stateside 4 years later. Once back home, foods tasted so different from what I remembered. The foods I missed were not as good. The best I can figure, the memory gradually makes delicious things (that we can no longer have) more delicious in our minds over an extended time.

    So for you who struggle with milk as I have, I encourage you to stay completely away from it for at least 4 months. (You can do it!) I really hope it works for you as it has for me. Really.

    Sorry for taking so much space on an off topic, but I would have given anything for tips to success and thought this was worth sharing.

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA

      Thanks for sharing that information with the community, Kimberly.

  12. Helen Hayes

    I would like to know what information you have on Forteo. I have not see it discussed on Save Your Bones. Thanks, Helen

  13. Patty

    Very informative!

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA

      Glad you liked it, Patty!

  14. Ghassan

    Another point, dear Vivian
    Some people related ‘holism’ with ‘holy’ not ‘whole’ giving it a rather metaphysical dimension when we are talking about a physical entity (not denying the spiritual part, far from it, it is rather the most important by far, but this is beside the point), perhaps you might like to use ‘wholistic’ instead of ‘holistic’.

  15. Ghassan

    Hi Vivian
    This is one of the most important posts – it deals with the fundamental difference between the philosophy of natural therapeutics and that of the prevalent conventional medicine.
    I very much liked ‘Tunnel Vision’ – it is very true + very illustrative.
    Ghassan, UK

    • Vivian Goldschmidt, MA

      Thank you, Ghassan! It’s important to get the fundamentals clearly stated – the Establishment tends to blur the two quite a bit.

  16. Trudy Barakin

    Hi Vivian
    Informative article as always!
    What is the impact of the nerve drug Lyrica on bone health? I suffer from severe nerve pain (occasionally) after 2 spinal surgeries and was given a script for Lyrica, which I have not filled yet. I am very reluctant to take any drugs unless the pain gets too bad.
    Maybe some readers can advise me as well in regards to their experience with Lyrica. I know it causes weight gain, drowsiness etc. but not sure about bone health.
    Many thanks!

    • hilary

      It can cause urine retention

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