Sinapic acid is a polyphenol found in a wide range of plant foods. It’s one of the four most common hydroxycinnamic acids, occurring widely in the plant kingdom, including in cereal grains, fruits, vegetables, and even many spices.
It’s an important part of a bone-healthy diet and has been scientifically shown to function as a potent antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory, anticancer, and anti‐anxiety compound.
We’ll look at how some of those functions help improve bone-health, how sinapic acid boosts your overall health, and the best food sources of this powerful polyphenol.
Bone Health Benefits Of Sinapic Acid
Sinapic acid is one of the many nutrients that improve bone health, yet it’s completely ignored by the Medical Establishment. In fact, this polyphenol has qualities that help to reverse osteoporosis and osteopenia.
Sinapic acid is one of the most effective polyphenolic antioxidants, considered superior or at least comparable to several others in its protective potential.1,2
Antioxidants prevent cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), also known as free radicals. ROS have an unpaired electron, so they snatch an electron from another cell, turning it into a free radical itself.
This domino effect has many harmful consequences. As it relates to bone health, it damages bone cells and disrupts the bone remodeling process, resulting in a reduction of new bone formation and weaker bones. Oxidative stress also causes a variety of other negative health effects, including neurodegenerative disorders, accelerated aging, and an increased risk of cancer..3,4,5
The antioxidant action of sinapic acid protects bones from oxidative stress.
Anxiety And Bone Formation
Sinapic Acid has been shown to reduce anxiety. It does so by antagonizing a specific neurotransmitter receptor in the brain. In a study on mice, this effect was dose-dependent, meaning that there was a direct relationship between the dose of sinapic acid and the reduction in anxiety.6
Anxiety can lead to heightened levels of cortisol, the stress hormone. Cortisol inhibits the creation of osteoblasts, which results in a reduction of bone formation.7 By reducing anxiety, sinapic acid helps keep cortisol levels low, therefore protecting bone.
Sinapic acid reduces anxiety, protecting bones from the damage caused by the stress hormone cortisol.
Sinapic Acid Is Anti-Inflammatory And Anticarcinogenic
Scientific studies have confirmed that sinapic acid inhibits inflammatory cytokines. This anti-inflammatory effect is closely linked to the polyphenol’s antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties.
Researchers have found that sinapic acid has a time and dose-dependent positive effect on colon and breast cancers.8,9
Cytokines, which increase with the surge of immune activity that accompanies inflammation, damage bone. In a study of older women, participants with the greatest measure of inflammation were three times as likely to fracture a bone as those with the lowest levels.10
Sinapic acid reduces inflammation, which protects against cancer and bone loss.
Overall Health benefits Of Sinapic Acid
Sinapic Acid’s health benefits extend beyond strengthening bone:
- Antimicrobial Activity – Researchers investigating antibacterial agents found that sinapic acid eradicated 97% to 99% of various microorganisms.11 Other studies found that sinapic acid killed dangerous bacteria while leaving beneficial lactic acid bacteria alive. 12 This antimicrobial effect provides protection from infection.
- Neuroprotective Properties – One study found a derivative of sinapic acid called sinapine to be promising for the prevention and cure of Alzheimer’s disease.13 Researchers observed it was dose-dependent in its inhibitory effect on acetylcholine esterase, a compound that terminates synaptic transmission. This means that sinapic acid prevents brain cells from being cut off from each other, extending the life and function of neurons.
- Reducing Hyperglycemia – A study on diabetic rats measured the effect of sinapic acid on blood glucose. The researchers found that sinapic acid reduced postprandial (after meals) blood-sugar spikes, and ameliorated hyperglycemia. 14 Another study found that sinapic acid’s impact on blood glucose is effective against type 2 diabetes.15 Hyperglycemia (excessively high blood glucose levels) also drives chronic kidney disease. Kidney health is critical for maintaining healthy bones.
The benefits of sinapic acid include the eradication of dangerous bacteria, neuroprotection, and protection from blood sugar spikes.
Best Sources Of Sinapic Acid
Fortunately, it’s easy to get sinapic acid due to its presence in many foods. Take a look at this list of foods with notable levels of the compound, and incorporate them into your diet to get the benefits of this amazing polyphenol:
- Turnip greens
Sinapic acid is naturally present in many foods.
Polyphenols And Bone
Polyphenols are essential micronutrients for maintaining good health and reversing osteoporosis. Sinapic acid, especially because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, looms large among them.
When you plan your bone-healthy meals, make a point to include foods that contain sinapic acid, to help you maintain good health and strong bones.
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1 Cuvelier ME, Richard H, Berset C. 1992. Comparison of the antioxidative activity of some acid‐phenols: structure–activity relationship. Biosci Biotech Bioch 56:324–5. Web. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1271/bbb.56.324
2 Natella F, Nardini M, Di Felice M, Scaccini C. 1999. Benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives as antioxidants: structure–activity relation. J Agric Food Chem 47:1453–9. Web. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf980737w
3 F. Wang and J. Yang, “A comparative study of caffeic acid and a novel caffeic acid conjugate SMND-309 on antioxidant properties in vitro,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 239–244, 2012.
4 E. H. Sarsour, M. G. Kumar, L. Chaudhuri, A. L. Kalen, and P. C. Goswami, “Redox control of the cell cycle in health and disease,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2985–3011, 2009.
5 B. Uttara, A. V. Singh, P. Zamboni, and R. T. Mahajan, “Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options,” Current Neuropharmacology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 65–74, 2009.
6 Yoon BH, Jung JW, Lee JJ, Cho YW, Jang CG, Jin C, Oh TH, Ryu JH. 2007. Anxiolytic‐like effects of sinapic acid in mice. Life Sci 81:234–40. Web. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17570441?dopt=Abstract
7 Dennison E, Hindmarsh P, Fall C, Kellingray S, Barker D, Phillips D, Cooper C. “Profiles of endogenous circulating cortisol and bone mineral density in healthy elderly men.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Sep;84(9):3058-63. Web: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10487665
8 E. A. Hudson, P. A. Dinh, T. Kokubun, M. S. J. Simmonds, and A. Gescher, “Characterization of potentially chemopreventive phenols in extracts of brown rice that inhibit the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1163–1170, 2000. Web. https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0033749223&origin=inward&txGid=562de53a30ffb42fdf89682ee00457ce
9 M. Kampa, V.-I. Alexaki, G. Notas et al., “Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. R63–R74, 2004. Web. https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-14044273131&origin=inward&txGid=044687591ef786a6bca4a8432599730b
10 Kamil E. Barbour, Jane A. Cauley. “Measuring inflammatory marker levels to determine risk of bone loss and fractures in older women.” April 20, 2013. Web: https://www.mlo-online.com/measuring-inflammatory-marker-levels-to-determine-risk-of-bone-loss-and-fractures-in-older-women.php
11 H. Nowak, K. Kujawa, R. Zadernowski, B. Roczniak, and H. KozŁowska, “Antioxidative and bactericidal properties of phenolic compounds in rapeseeds,” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 149–152, 1992. Web. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/lipi.19920940406
12 Engels, A. Schieber, and M. G. Gänzle, “Sinapic acid derivatives in defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seed meal extracts using UHPLC-DADESI-MSn and identification of compounds with antibacterial activity,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 234, no. 3, pp. 535–542, 2012. Web. https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84857239538&origin=inward&txGid=6f322a131e25336e4f3369b7dee1d4e8
13 L. He, H.-T. Li, S.-W. Guo et al., “Inhibitory effects of sinapine on activity of acetylcholinesterase in cerebral homogenate and blood serum of rats,” Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 813–815, 2008. Web. https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-45449101520&origin=inward&txGid=f849cd35cc564ed140bb0fdaa630e137
14 Y.-G. Cherng, C.-C. Tsai, H.-H. Chung, Y.-W. Lai, S.-C. Kuo, and J.-T. Cheng, “Antihyperglycemic action of sinapic acid in diabetic rats,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 49, pp. 12053–12059, 2013. Web. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/3571614/#B97
15 Kanchana, G. et al. “Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of sinapic acid in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in albino rats.” Global Journal of Pharmacology. Volume 5, Issue 1, 2011, Pages 33-39. Web. https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79957664687&origin=inward&txGid=04808ce990c172793aad8a321dea5b7c